Henley六世:从9个月大的国王到兰开斯特王朝的终

原标题:Henley六世:从9个月大的皇帝到兰开斯特王朝的终结者

原标题:双语||乾隆大帝皇上给United Kingdom帝王George三世的信(中波兰语卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)

原标题:豆蔻梢头万年有多少长度?

图像和文字摘自《空王冠》生龙活虎书,版权归出版社全数

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文丨﹝英﹞丹·琼斯(Dan Jones)

应天承运,国王敕谕,英吉利国王知悉:

18世纪摄影:古巴比伦主神马Duke的神塔,高7层,

译丨陆军政大学学鹏

咨尔天皇,远在重洋,倾心向化,特遣使恭赍表章,航海来廷,叩祝万寿,并备进方物,用将忱悃(还带了累累礼金,忠心可嘉卡塔尔。**朕披阅表文,词意肫恳,具见国君恭顺之诚,深为嘉许。全体赍到表贡之正副使臣,念其奉使远涉,推恩加礼。已令大臣带领瞻觐(让大臣指导他们仰慕天朝文明,赐予筵宴,叠合赏赉,用示怀柔。其已回珠山之管船官役人等五百余人,虽今后京,朕亦优加奖励,俾得普沾恩遇,因人而异(已经回到瓦伦西亚珠山的管船役使等600五个人即便未有来京,小编也同样尊敬付与优厚嘉勉,让我们都沾沾光卡塔尔。**

它极有非常大希望是《圣经》中所记载的巴别塔的原型。

在15世纪时,幼主在位不要以前都没有之事,但她俩会给国家带给超级多辛勤的主题素材。三个新生儿、幼童,甚或少年,完全能够当君王,但她从没实际的施政手艺。

至尔圣上表内恳请派风姿洒脱尔国之人住居天朝,照应尔国购买贩卖意气风发节,此则与天朝体制不合,断不可行。平昔西洋各个国家有愿来天朝当差之人,原准其来京,但既来之后,即遵用天朝服色,安放堂内,永世不许复回国内,此系天朝定制,想尔国王亦所知悉。今尔君王欲求派生龙活虎尔国之人居住京城,既不能够若来京当差之西德国人,在京居住不回国内,又不得听其来往,常通音讯,实为无用之事。且天朝所管地方至为广远,凡外藩使臣到京,驿馆须要,行为举止出入,俱有一定体制,从无听其任性之例。今尔国若留人在京,言语不通,时装殊制,无地能够安放。若必似来京当差之西外国人,令其后生可畏律改易服装,天朝亦不肯强人以所难。设天朝欲差人常驻尔国,亦岂尔国所能遵行(尽管小编天朝也派人常住你国,大概你国也不容许呢?卡塔尔?况西洋诸国甚多,非止尔一国,若俱似尔皇上恳请派人留京,岂会生龙活虎黄金年代听许?是此事断难准行。岂会因尔天皇壹位之请,以致更张天朝百多年法度(不能因为圣上你壹位之请,将天朝一百余年的老实给废了卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)。

八个月大的Henley六世被无可争论地接收为合法君王。但在她常年在此以前,或然在表现出足足的理智、能够起首参与行政事务从前,供给有人表示她,为他的集体和私人生活做有所的决定。作为孩子,皇帝不能够自个儿选取管理者和佣人,也不能够指挥战役或主持司法,也从不丰盛的力量对王位继承做出主要调控,但苏格兰的安全重视于如此的决定。但是在子女长到十三虚岁成年此前,也不容许忽视上述所格外。

若云尔皇上为照管购买发售起见,则尔国人在得梅因交易非止二13日,原无不加以恩视(若派人来京是为着关照购销起见,这您国人在多哥洛美交易亦不是一天二日了,天朝原本对经纪人就从未有过尊敬卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)。即如早前博尔都噶尔亚、意达哩亚等国屡屡遣使来朝,亦曾以照应贸易为请。天朝鉴其悃忱,优加体恤(像早前葡萄牙共和国、意大利共和国几国一些次派人来,也早就以照拂贸易的名义请自个儿照应。天朝看他俩挺真诚的,也不便于,就多加体恤卡塔尔。凡遇这个国家等贸易之事,无不照望周备。前次西藏经纪人吴昭平有拖欠洋船价值银两个,俱饬令该管总督由官库内先行动支帑项代为归还,并将拖欠商人重治其罪。想这件事尔国亦闻知矣,国外又何须派人留京,为此越例断不可行之请?况留人在京,距麦迪逊贸易处所几及万里,伊亦何能照应耶(并且你们派人驻京,京城距太原繁多风华正茂万里,他怎可以照料到?卡塔尔国?**若云惊羡天朝,欲其观习教诲,则天朝自有天朝礼法,与尔国各不相近。尔国所留之人即能习学,尔国自有风俗制度,亦断不可能模仿中夏族民共和国,即学会亦属无效**。

者按

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天朝扶有随地,惟焚膏继晷,办理行政事务,希世奇宝,并不贵重(天朝管辖的地点那么大,笔者想的是何等努力,至于稀世宝物啥的自作者并不看得超重卡塔尔。尔皇帝本次赍进各物,念其诚心远献,特谕该管衙门收纳(你呀这一次进贡了广大礼品,念你特别真诚大老远献来了,笔者才特地下旨让有关部门收了卡塔尔国。**实际天朝德威远被,万国来王,各类贵重之物,梯航毕集,无所下有,尔之正使等所亲见(其实天朝德泽四方,威加环球,万国来朝,通过水田和旱地两路给自个儿进贡,咱什么贵重玩意儿都不缺,那几个你的大使都以亲眼见过的卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)。然从不贵奇巧,并无更需尔国制办物件。是尔天子所请派人留京一事,于天朝体制既属不合,而于尔国亦殊觉无益。特此详晰开示,遣令该使等安程回国(我把话都挑明了,现令令你国使者登时布置回国路程卡塔尔国**尔君王惟当善体朕意,益励款诚,永矢恭顺,以保义尔有邦,分享太平之福(国君你应有很好地领悟作者的意趣,对天朝要尤其热诚归附,发誓永世对天朝恭顺,天朝的恩德就能够施予你们国家,共同建设和睦社会卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎。除正职和副职使臣以下各官及通事兵役人等正贯加赏各物件另单赏给外,兹因尔国使臣回国,特颁敕谕,并赐赍尔皇帝文绮珍物,具如常仪,加赐彩缎罗绮,文玩器材诸珍(除了正职和副职使臣以下一干人等都按品级赏给各样物件,因为你国使者立刻快要回国,笔者又专门下令,除了按常规赏给您的有趣意儿以外,加赐你绫罗绸缎、文玩器材等有意思意儿若干卡塔尔,另有清单。王其祗受,悉朕眷怀(皇恩浩荡,那都以自家对您们的关怀卡塔尔Henley六世:从9个月大的国王到兰开斯特王朝的终结者。Henley六世:从9个月大的国王到兰开斯特王朝的终结者。。

公元前8000年,是公众承认的中东地区新石器时期的源点,也是近日学界对于人类成就源点所承认的年份。把公元前8000年用作三个大要起源的话,到现在有10000年的历史。把每400年隔成大器晚成段,称之为二个单位。而二个单位之所以有意义,在于中间填入的野史事件。

亨利六世

横行霸道敕谕。**——**《清实录》

正如地球表层有大洋和陆上相通,若要了然某大器晚成历史事件到现在有多长时间远,也须要给时间填入历史事件。在大家有福同享的生存中,这不是什么样难题。大家可能会惊讶,光阴如箭,20年宛如日月如梭。但记得某一事变发生了多长期却简单,动脑前后的平地风波就行了。就是出于有各类的前尘,人的生平才不致变得一团模糊。

他的生父Henley五世起码是部分地预知到了那么些主题素材。他于1422年七月临危之际将亲信召唤到病榻前,提示他们在她死后怎么样料理她的幼子和王国。他的遗嘱附录规定,年幼的亨利六世的肉身由其叔祖父Eck塞特公爵托马斯·博FordEck塞特男爵托马斯·博Ford(1377~1427卡塔尔国为Gunter的John与凯瑟琳·斯温福德的第三子。Gunter的约翰的合法孙子是Henley四世(也便是Henley六世的太爷卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎,所以Henley四世是托马斯·博Ford的异母三弟。担负。Eck塞特御木本将康健肩负照看幼主,并精选仆人。

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后生可畏万年,23个小时单位

奉命辅佐埃克塞特伯爵的是五个对Henley五世赤子之心的深信:Walter·亨格福德爵士(一个持久为王室内廷坚决守护的管家卡塔尔国和菲茨休男爵Henley(一个人受到信任的王室管事人卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)。那五人轮换侍奉在御前。(后来接手他们职务的,是此外两名对前壹个人圣上精忠报国的军士:蒂普托夫特侯爵John和Louis·德·罗伯斯Art。卡塔尔国

Qianlong’s Letter to George III, 1793

1个单位

但在推推搡搡婴孩方面,最切合的本来是孩子的阿娘。凯瑟琳·德·瓦卢瓦(她本人才刚刚脱离童年卡塔尔在外甥的早期生活和成年人中也抒发了同等至关心重视要的效果。

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从20世纪退回到19世纪,不过百余年而已,而认知上的差错已经面世。对许多不希罕历史的意大利人的话,从1812年到美国内战这段时日一团模糊。不过200年要么好对付的,因为超级多人能够凭着本人对本国历史的问询,体会时代的悠久。若是有人不打听1812年—1861年时期到底发生了如何,英国人经常还是可以模糊地告诉她,这段时日U.S.反复向南扩大,奴隶制在美利坚合众国国内成为矛盾与理论的纽带。

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You, O King, live beyond the confines of many seas. Nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to partake of the benefits of our civilisation, you have dispatched a mission respectfully bearing your memorial. Your Envoy has crossed the seas and paid his respects at my Court on the anniversary of my birthday. To show your devotion, you have also sent offerings of your country's produce.

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凯瑟琳·德·瓦卢瓦

I have perused your memorial: the earnest terms in which it is couched reveal a respectful humility on your part, which is highly praiseworthy. In consideration of the fact that your Ambassador and his deputy have come a long way with your memorial and tribute, I have shown them high favour and have allowed them to be introduced into my presence. To manifest my indulgence, I have entertained them at a banquet and made them numerous gifts. I have also caused presents to be forwarded to the Naval Commander and six hundred of his officers and men, although they did not come to Peking, so that they too may share in my all-­embracing kindness.

1862年十一月,联邦军事攻击岛十号在密密西比河。(美国内乱卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎

凯瑟琳的内廷在样式上与外甥的内廷分开,但实际二者有比相当多重叠。王太后内廷的经费对她儿子的内廷提供补给,凯瑟琳在甄选仆人方面也是有影响力。在Henley六世依旧个婴孩的时候,主倘使女人侍奉他。他有一个大姨董事长,叫琼·艾斯特利;一个日班保姆,叫马蒂尔达·斯布罗克;一个房内女仆,叫Agnes·杰克曼;二个洗衣妇,叫玛格丽塔·布拉泽曼。大家对那么些女生知之甚少,但Katharine鲜明对选取那几个人口有领导权,因为他们和婴孩待在一块的小运比他的要长。

As to your entreaty to send one of your nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of your country's trade with China, this request is contrary to all usage of my dynasty and cannot possibly be entertained. It is true that Europeans, in the service of the dynasty, have been permitted to live at Peking, but they are compelled to adopt Chinese dress, they are strictly confined to their own precincts and are never permitted to return home. You are presumably familiar with our dynastic regulations. Your proposed Envoy to my Court could not be placed in a position similar to that of European officials in Peking who are forbidden to leave China, nor could he, on the other hand, be allowed liberty of movement and the privilege of corresponding with his own country; so that you would gain nothing by his residence in our midst.

再后退200年,从1800年退到1600年。1600年时,米国野史能够说还尚无起来。墨西哥以北地区的举世无双亚洲定居者是佛罗里吐鲁番的少数意大利人,还可能有圣Lawrence河前后的个别法兰西毛皮商人。在埃及开罗,文化艺术复兴运动早就到了尾声。英帝国君位上坐的是伊Lisa赤黄金时代世。新建变成的全球剧场正在热演的节目是《恺撒大帝》和《大得人心》。

Henley六世两岁时,凯瑟琳曾经的佣人阿丽丝·布蒂耶女爵士被任命为王室女导师,御前会议正式授权他在亨利六世违背纪律时教化他,何况不用惧怕报复。就算皇上慢慢长大,他身边的男子更扩张,凯瑟琳的影响力还是很扎眼。1428年,沃里克Graff理查·Becher姆发轫担负Henley六世的教育,奉命给她培养出全部骑士风姿的圣上品质。但Henley六世的忏悔神父George·亚瑟顿,以致她的内廷首席骑士Walter·Becher姆爵士,都是王太后身边的老人。

Moreover, our Celestial dynasty possesses vast territories, and tribute missions from the dependencies are provided for by the Department for Tributary States, which ministers to their wants and exercises strict control over their movements. It would be quite impossible to leave them to their own devices. Supposing that your Envoy should come to our Court, his language and national dress differ from that of our people, and there would be no place in which to bestow him. It may be suggested that he might imitate the Europeans permanently resident in Peking and adopt the dress and customs of China, but, it has never been our dynasty's wish to force people to do things unseemly and inconvenient. Besides, supposing I sent an Ambassador to reside in your country, how could you possibly make for him the requisite arrangements? Europe consists of many other nations besides your own: if each and all demanded to be represented at our Court, how could we possibly consent? The thing is utterly impracticable. How can our dynasty alter its whole procedure and system of etiquette, established for more than a century, in order to meet your individual views? If it be said that your object is to exercise control over your country's trade, your nationals have had full liberty to trade at Canton for many a year, and have received the greatest consideration at our hands. Missions have been sent by Portugal and Italy, preferring similar requests. The Throne appreciated their sincerity and loaded them with favours, besides authorising measures to facilitate their trade with China. You are no doubt aware that, when my Canton merchant, Wu Chao-ping, who was in debt to foreign ships. I made the Viceroy advance the monies due, out of the provincial treasury, and ordered him to punish the culprit severely. Why then should foreign nations advance this utterly unreasonable request to be represented at my Court? Peking is nearly two thousand miles from Canton, and at such a distance what possible control could any British representative exercise?

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年轻的王太后在英格兰和Will士具备广袤的土地和富厚的财产,富含Will士的不小城郭弗琳特、里兹兰和博马Rees,约克郡巍峨雄伟的要塞纳尔斯伯勒,在南方还应该有赫特福德城郭、都林城墙,甚至Kent郡的普莱西和瓦灵福德,后面一个是大器晚成座历史悠久的庙堂城墙,特意为供他接收和占用而做了大规模翻修和装修。她在和煦最欢娱的几座官邸之间循环,但大好多时光和外甥协同待在泰晤士河谷的几座美丽王宫中,特别是温泽、威斯敏斯特和埃尔特姆。

If you assert that your reverence for Our Celestial dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our civilisation, our ceremonies and code of laws differ so completely from your own that, even if your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of our civilisation, you could not possibly transplant our manners and customs to your alien soil. Therefore, however adept the Envoy might become, nothing would be gained thereby.

Elizabeth生龙活虎世(画像卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎,英帝国都铎王朝最后一个人君王。

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Swaying the wide world, I have but one aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfil the duties of the State: strange and costly objects do not interest me. If I have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty's majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country's manufactures. This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result in inconvenience to yourself. I have expounded my wishes in detail and have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward journey. It behoves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your country hereafter. Besides making gifts (of which I enclose an inventory) to each member of your Mission, I confer upon you, O King, valuable presents in excess of the number usually bestowed on such occasions, including silks and curios-a list of which is likewise enclosed. Do you reverently receive them and take note of my tender goodwill towards you! A special mandate.

纪事以上几百余年的事已经很难了。1600年—1800年这200年就好像比1800年—二〇〇四年的200年极度模糊不清。对大家中的很四个人来说,说出1600年—1800年里面就是是十几件大事也要想一登时。可是,大家还没曾完全丧失历史坐标。路易十二、Charles二世、克伦威尔、王政复辟时期、腓特烈大帝、美洲次大陆的定居点、United States打天下和法兰西共和国民代表大会革命,对以上的更新迭代,分化人会记得差异的内部境况。但经过历史薄雾中表现的风流浪漫对要害历史事件,仍可体会到1600年—1800年相隔的时间跨度。大大多人的记得恐怕已达到规定的标准了极点,1600年—二〇〇二年间共计400年的历史照旧是风华正茂段为人所知的野史。前日的社会风气的大旨样貌是在此400年间产生的。以上400年组成了第叁个单位。从那边发轫,大家将一步步倒退到公元前8000年,看看是或不是有异常的大可能率理清10000年的野史。

埃尔特姆宫,图片源于互连网

You, O King, from afar have yearned after the blessings of our civilisation, and in your eagerness to come into touch with our converting influence have sent an Embassy across the sea bearing a memorial. I have already taken note of your respectful spirit of submission, have treated your mission with extreme favour and loaded it with gifts, besides issuing a mandate to you, O King, and honouring you with the bestowal of valuable presents. Thus has my indulgence been manifested.

2个单位

埃尔特姆位于Kent郡,在叁个多世纪里是非常受心爱的庙堂居所,在那处我们能瞥见幼年天子的最先生活。埃尔特姆宫宽阔、壮丽、华侈而舒服,因而受到凯瑟琳王太后的挚爱,而那个歌功颂德的角落也相符蹒跚学步的少儿探寻。埃尔特姆左近是少数英亩的公园,还可能有专心设计的庄园,里面种着山葫芦藤。温婉的弧形木桥横跨于宫室的城墙之上,延伸向众多专项建筑。

Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own country's barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years, although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign hongs [merchant firms] should be established at Canton, so that your wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our beneficence. But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which completely fail to recognise the Throne's principle to "treat strangers from afar with indulgence," and to exercise a pacifying control over barbarian tribes, the world over. Moreover, our dynasty, swaying the myriad races of the globe, extends the same benevolence towards all. Your England is not the only nation trading at Canton. If other nations, following your bad example, wrongfully importune my ear with further impossible requests, how will it be possible for me to treat them with easy indulgence? Nevertheless, I do not forget the lonely remoteness of your island, cut off from the world by intervening wastes of sea, nor do I overlook your excusable ignorance of the usages of our Celestial Empire. I have consequently commanded my Ministers to enlighten your Ambassador on the subject, and have ordered the departure of the mission. But I have doubts that, after your Envoy's return he may fail to acquaint you with my view in detail or that he may be lacking in lucidity, so that I shall now proceed . . . to issue my mandate on each question separately. In this way you will, I trust, comprehend my meaning....

从公元2002年退回七个单位,也便是说从Shakespeare时期退回一个单位。大家未来再次来到了公元1200年。亚洲正值从当中世纪的思虑束缚中脱帽出来。威马拉加是澳洲的商业贸易首都。“零”的数学概念刚刚从阿拉伯国度(阿拉伯人又是从菲律宾人这里学的卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎传入欧洲。意大利共和国锡耶纳学院和大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国澳大利亚国立学院创建于12世纪末。比萨城新建不久的大器晚成座塔楼日益偏斜,令人心悬。在世界的另一方面,中华夏族民共和国透过1000年的升华,已近鼎盛。同中黄炎子孙民共和国知识比较,澳国知识显示无比落后。在United Kingdom,狮心王理查生机勃勃世的大器晚成世已经一命归西,民间最先流传三个叫罗布in汉的人的轶闻。

小君王只怕会遇见在厨房与食物库房专门的工作的炊事员。清晨,面包房里会流传令人舒爽的芳香,还应该有香料储藏室里飘出的更兼具异域风情的含意。埃尔特姆宫于1305年改成王室财产,自14世纪50时期以来资历了一回大范围扩大建设。在Henley六世在位的陈年日子,王室在埃尔特姆投入越来越多资金,以保险它能提供养育幼主所需的享有清洁最近世化的器材。整洁美丽、配备石制钢筋混凝土烟囱的木制套房由回廊与意气风发座雄伟的私人礼拜堂连接起来。早上凯瑟琳能够在厅堂和三个特制的歌舞厅招待客人。

(3) Your request for a small island near Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises from your desire to develop trade. As there are neither foreign hongs nor interpreters in or near Chusan, where none of your ships have ever called, such an island would be utterly useless for your purposes. Every inch of the territory of our Empire is marked on the map and the strictest vigilance is exercised over it all: even tiny islets and far­lying sand­banks are clearly defined as part of the provinces to which they belong. Consider, moreover, that England is not the only barbarian land which wishes to establish . . . trade with our Empire: supposing that other nations were all to imitate your evil example and beseech me to present them each and all with a site for trading purposes, how could I possibly comply? This also is a flagrant infringement of the usage of my Empire and cannot possibly be entertained.

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而圣上的内廷人士都待在他的套房,其主干是国君的私人房间,这里有两座壁炉供暖,彩色玻璃窗提供光照,窗上画着鸟儿和妖魔,以至Henley六世的太爷亨利四世的私有徽记。王室徽章和王冠图案环绕着亨利四世的箴言:soueignexvous de moy(铭记小编卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎。

(4) The next request, for a small site in the vicinity of Canton city, where your barbarian merchants may lodge or, alternatively, that there be no longer any restrictions over their movements at Aomen, has arisen from the following causes. Hitherto, the barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality.... If these restrictions were withdrawn, friction would inevitably occur between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects, and the results would militate against the benevolent regard that I feel towards you. From every point of view, therefore, it is best that the regulations now in force should continue unchanged....

比萨斜塔,建造于1173年,1174年第贰次发出偏斜,

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(7) Regarding your nation's worship of the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise rulers have bestowed on China a moral system and inculcated a code, which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines. Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to hold intercourse with Chinese subjects; they are restricted within the limits of their appointed residences, and may not go about propagating their religion. The distinction between Chinese and barbarian is most strict, and your Ambassador's request that barbarians shall be given full liberty to disseminate their religion is utterly unreasonable.

至今缩短到每一年偏斜约0.1毫米,塔身偏离"自然姿势"本来就有5米多。

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